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Acetylcysteine Ph. Eur.

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CAT#
10-101-106
Synonyms/Alias
N-Acetyl-L-cysteine; NAC; L-α-Acetamido-β-mercaptopropionic acid; NSC-111180
CAS No.
616-91-1
Sequence
Ac-Cys-OH
M.W/Mr.
163.2
Application
Acute and chronic bronchitis, laryngitis, tracheitis or sinusitisPulmonary complications of cystic fibrosisParacetamol overdose Show alternative translations
  • Background
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Acetylcysteine is an Antidote, and Antidote for Acetaminophen Overdose, and Mucolytic. The mechanism of action of acetylcysteine is as a Reduction Activity. The physiologic effect of acetylcysteine is by means of Decreased Respiratory Secretion Viscosity, and Increased Glutathione Concentration.

CAS: 75921-69-6 (net)
Sequence: Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Nle-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2 acetate salt
M.W: 1646.85
Molecular Formula: C78H111N21O19
CAS: 79561-22-1
Sequence: Pyr-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-D-Ala-Leu-Arg-Pro-NHEt
M.W: 1167.3
Molecular Formula: C56H78N16O12
CAS: 128270-60-0 (net)
Sequence: H-D-Phe-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Asn-Gly-Asp-Phe-Glu-Glu-Ile-Pro-Glu-Glu-Tyr-Leu-OH trifluoroacetate salt
M.W: 2108.3
Molecular Formula: C98H138N24O33

There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of alternatives to current pharmacological therapies in psychiatry. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is emerging as a useful agent in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Like many therapies, the clinical origins of NAC are far removed from its current use in psychiatry. Whereas the mechanisms of NAC are only beginning to be understood, it is likely that NAC is exerting benefits beyond being a precursor to the antioxidant, glutathione, modulating glutamatergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. This review outlines the current literature regarding the use of NAC in disorders including addiction, compulsive and grooming disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. N-acetylcysteine has shown promising results in populations with these disorders, including those in whom treatment efficacy has previously been limited. The therapeutic potential of this acetylated amino acid is beginning to emerge in the field of psychiatric research.

Dean O, Giorlando F, Berk M. N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action[J]. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN, 2011, 36(2): 78.

N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the acetylated variant of the amino acid L-cysteine, is an excellent source of sulfhydryl (SH) groups, and is converted in the body into metabolites capable of stimulating glutathione (GSH) synthesis, promoting detoxification, and acting directly as free radical scavengers. Administration of NAC has historically been as a mucolytic agent in a variety of respiratory illnesses; however, it appears to also have beneficial effects in conditions characterized by decreased GSH or oxidative stress, such as HIV infection, cancer, heart disease, and cigarette smoking. An 18-dose oral course of NAC is currently the mainstay of treatment for acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine also appears to have some clinical usefulness as a chelating agent in the treatment of acute heavy metal poisoning, both as an agent capable of protecting the liver and kidney from damage and as an intervention to enhance elimination of the metals.

Kelly G S. Clinical applications of N-acetylcysteine[J]. Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic, 1998, 3(2): 114-127.

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