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BAM (Bovine Adrenal Medulla) Peptides
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Bovine adrenal medulla (BAM) peptides are a class of strong antihypertensive peptides that have been extracted from human pheochromocytoma. These peptides consist of 52 amino acids with a disulfide bond in the molecule. They can be produced from a variety of tissues, such as the adrenal medulla, heart, lungs, kidneys, and pheochromocytoma. It has been reported that intravenous injection of BAM peptides into rats can cause a strong and sustained hypotensive effect. This antihypertensive effect is mainly achieved by reducing the resistance of the entire peripheral blood vessel. BAM peptides can be secreted in large amounts from cultured endothelial cells. The receptor for BAM peptides is present in cultured smooth muscle cells. These findings demonstrate that BAM peptides play an important role in regulating vascular strength.
Mechanism of action
BAM peptides ribonucleic acid is expressed in normal adrenal medulla, lung, heart, kidney tissue and pheochromocytoma tissues. However, the concentration of BAM peptides from the renal veins and adrenal veins did not significantly increase when compared with plasma BAM peptides from the aorta. Therefore, vascular tissue is one of the main sources of circulating BAM peptides. On the other hand, damage to cardiomyocytes can cause increased synthesis and secretion of BAM peptides. There was no correlation between plasma BAM peptides and creatine phosphokinase.
Application of Bovine adrenal medulla (BAM) peptides
Plasma BAM peptides are elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction, especially concomitant congestive heart failure. Increased BAM peptides are associated with increased fluid retention, increased sympathetic excitability, and/or increased pulmonary vascular bed pressure. BAM peptides play an antagonistic role in the excessive vasoconstriction of acute myocardial infarction. BAM peptides may be closely related to the pathophysiological mechanisms of circulatory diseases. Therefore, BAM peptides will become a promising target for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.
1. Duane, T., Purnima, R., Alvin, S., Randolph, V.. (1985). New bovine adrenal medullary peptide and its precursor. Chemical Biology & Drug Design, 25(3), 238-241.
2. Sikand, P., Dong, X., & LaMotte, R. H. (2011). BAM8–22 peptide produces itch and nociceptive sensations in humans independent of histamine release. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(20), 7563-7567.