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Nesfatin-1 is a neuropeptide and anorexigenic peptide. It is mainly expressed in neurons in brain regions including metabolism and appetite regulation, subcutaneous adipocytes and gut. Moreover, it also appears in the circulation. More importantly, it can cross the blood-brain barrier. On one hand, nesfatin-1 involves in the regulation of fat storage and hunger. There are increasing number of data demonstrate that increased nesfatin-1 in the hypothalamus causes diminished hunger, resulting in a potential loss of body fat and weight. On the other hand, nesfatin-1 abundantly presents in various hypothalamus regions and brain regions participate in the regulation of food intake. Thus, it plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and glucose homeostasis
Mechanism of action
Some studies have been shown that the actions of nesfatin-1 are dependent on the central oxytocin system, the central melanocortin system and corticotropin releasing hormone-producing neurons. Nesfatin-1 colocalized with corticotropin releasing hormone and oxytocin. It can directly change the membrane potential of oxytocin neurons and corticotropin releasing hormone. Which indicate that nesfatin-1 may work by regulating the activity of all three neuronal cell types. That is to say, nesfatin-1 may work as an adipokine that modulates energy consumption and appetite through activating the sympathetic nervous system. Interestingly, some data suggests that nesfatin-1 can cross the blood brain barrier by a nonsaturable mechanism, indicating that nesfatin-1 could act in brain to exert its effects.
Application of nesfatin-1
Nesfatin-1 may affect in some central nervous system’s diseases that are related to digestive symptoms, which has been observed in some patients with digestive diseases. Lateral ventricle injection of nesfatin-1 can reduce food intake in a dose-dependent manner, these phenomenon are contrast with antibody neutralization of nesfatin-1 which stimulates appetite. Nesfatin-1 is widely distributed in the brain, suggesting it play an important role in neuroendocrine regulation, stress response and autonomic control of viscera.
1. Xu, YY; Ge JF; Liang J; Cao Y. (2018) Nesfatin-1 and cortisol: potential novel diagnostic biomarkers in moderate and severe depressive disorder. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 11, 495-502.
2. Ramanjaneya, M; Tan, B. K; Rucinski, M; Kawan, M. (2015) Nesfatin-1 inhibits proliferation and enhances apoptosis of human adrenocortical H295R cells. Journal of Endocrinology, 226, 1-11.