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Saposin Related Peptides
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Saponins, also known as diosgenin, is a kind of special glycosides which widely exist in the plant world. After shaking, its aqueous solution can produce long-lasting soap-like foam, so it is named. According to the structure of saponins hydrolyzed into saponins, they can be divided into two categories: triterpenoidal saponins and steroidal saponins. The common sugars that make up saponins are glucose, galactose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid and so on. They are often linked to glycosides at position C3 of saponins. As a kind of bioactive substance, saponins have attracted more and more attention. Saposins A, B, C and D are a group of glycoproteins with similar structure, which are extracted from a single precursor protein, prosoap globulin. All saponins contain about 80 amino acids and 6 cysteine residues at the same position.
Mode of Action
Saposins increased the hydrolysis activity of lysosome by interacting with glycolipid hydrolase and its substrate. In blood, seminal plasma, seminal tubule fluid and prostatic fluid, Saposins and prosaposin exist in different types of cells in the form of secretory proteins. Pre-saponins and their active domain, saponins C, are well known for their strong neurotrophic activity and are involved in the development of neuroembryology. The neurotrophic activity of prosaponins is thought to be due to the NH2 terminal part of the saponins C domain of the molecule, which is the source of many bioactive synthetic peptides, such as prosaptide TX14A.
Some saponins have a destructive effect on the cell membrane, showing the activities of poisonous fish, snail, hemolysis, sperm and cytotoxicity. The hemolysis of saponins is due to the fact that many saponins can combine with cholesterol to form water-insoluble molecular complexes. The biological activity of saponins is related to the number of sugars and the structure of glycosides. For example, there is no hemolysis of total saponins, but after separation, the saponins with triol and dicarboxylic acid as glycosides have a significant hemolytic effect. On the other hand, the saponins with human diol as glycoside had anti-hemolytic effect. In addition, some saponins also have anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol, liver protection, hypoglycemic, anti-microbial and cardiovascular activities and other biological activities.
- Two-way regulation of immunity;
- Anti-hypoxia and anti-fatigue effect;
- Anti-hypothermia stress;
- Anti-lipid oxidation;
- The effect on the central nervous system;
- It can regulate the kidney.
1. Qi, X. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,271,932. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
2. Watnick, R. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 10/267,799.