Vasopressin Related Peptides
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Vasopressin (VP), also known as antidiuretic hormone, is a nine amino acid peptide hormone secreted by neurons in the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and released after reaching the posterior lobe of the neuropituitary gland through the hypothalamic-pituitary tract. Its main function is to improve the permeability of distal convoluted tubule and collecting tube to water and promote the absorption of water. It is the key regulatory hormone for urine concentration and dilution. In addition, the hormone can also enhance the permeability of the inner medullary collecting tube to urea.
Mechanism of action
Vasopressin (VP) is synthesized in the cell body and transported to the neurohypophysis via the hypothalamic-pituitary tract and released. Its main function is to increase the permeability of distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct epithelial cells to water, so as to increase the reabsorption of water, concentrate urine and reduce urine volume. In addition, antidiuretic hormone could also increase the active reabsorption of NaCl in the thick segment of the ascending branch of the loop and the permeability of the collecting tube of the inner medulla to urea, thus increasing the solute concentration of the medulla intertissue fluid and the osmotic concentration of the medulla intertissue fluid, which is good for urine concentration.
Effects and application of Vasopressin
ADH binds to the specific receptors of renal distal convoluted tubule and collecting tubule to form hormone-receptor complex, activate adenylate cyclase, transform ATP into cAMP, activate protein kinase and phosphorylation membrane protein under the action of cAMP. The permeability of renal tubular epithelial cells to water increased and water was passively reabsorbed along the osmotic gradient.
- Elevation of blood pressure
ADH contracted blood vessels and visceral smooth muscle, resulting in pressor effect. Synthetic ADH can be used to treat esophageal variceal bleeding.
- Stimulation of ACTH release
ADH could promote the release of ACTH like corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), which may directly act on the anterior pituitary and stimulate the release of ACTH, but not CRF.
- Enhance memory in animals.
It can promote glycogen decomposition and inhibit fatty acid synthesis in experimental rats.
In conclusion, VP infusion is sometimes used to treat septic shock, which may be caused by bacterial infection in the blood and the release of bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide. Infusion of VP increases systemic vascular resistance, thereby increasing arterial pressure. Some studies have shown that low-dose infusion of VP (for septic shock) can also cause dilatation of the brain, lung and kidney (mediated by endothelial release of nitric oxide), while inhibiting other vascular beds.
1. Garrison, J. L., Macosko, E. Z., Bernstein, S., Pokala, N., Albrecht, D. R., & Bargmann, C. I. (2012). Oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides have an ancient role in reproductive behavior. Science, 338(6106), 540-543.
2. Szczepanska-Sadowska, E., Zera, T., Sosnowski, P., Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, A., Puszko, A., & Misicka, A. (2017). Vasopressin and related peptides; potential value in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of clinical disorders. Current drug metabolism, 18(4), 306-345.