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Xylazine Hydrochloride

5,6-Dihydro-2-(2,6-xylidino)-4H-1,3-thiazine · HCl; N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3-thiazin-2-amine · HCl
7361-61-7 (net), 23076-35-9 (hydrochloride)
Molecular Formula
Xylazine hydrochloride is used for sedation, anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and analgesia in animals. Veterinarians also use xylazine as an emetic, especially in cats.
Xylazine is an analogue of clonidine and a potent agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor. Initial hypertension is caused by xylazine’s action at peripheral postsynaptic adrenergic receptors, which produces vascular smooth muscle contraction and vasoconstriction. Eventual reductions in blood pressure are due to decreased sympathetic tone resulting from xylazine’s activation of central and presynaptic sympathetic neuronal alpha2 adrenoceptors.
Areas of Interest
Analgesic & veterinary medicine

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Xylazine hydrochloride, a non-narcotic compound, is a sedative and analgesic as well as a muscle relaxant. Its sedative and analgesic activity is related to central nervous system depression. Following intramuscular administration, the clinical effects of xylazine hydrochloride are apparent within 10-15 minutes. Clinical effects are observed within 3-5 minutes of intravenous administration. A sleeplike state, the depth of which is dose-dependent, is usually maintained for 1 to 2 hours, while analgesia lasts from 15 to 30 minutes.

The combination ketamine-xylazine was assessed as a surgical anaesthetic in the golden hamster. Several dose levels and routes of injection were evaluated. It was determined that 50-200 mg/kg bodyweight of ketamine with 10 mg/kg body weight of xylazine, when given by intraperitoneal injection, was a satisfactory general anaesthetic.

Curl, J. L., & Peters, L. L. (1983). Ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride anaesthesia in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Laboratory animals, 17(4), 290-293.

A combination of ketamine and xylazine can be used to induce anesthesia in Axis deer. Furthermore, anesthetic effects can be reversed by administration of yohimbine.

Sontakke, S. D., Reddy, A. P., Umapathy, G., & Shivaji, S. (2007). Anesthesia induced by administration of xylazine hydrochloride alone or in combination with ketamine hydrochloride and reversal by administration of yohimbine hydrochloride in captive Axis deer (Axis axis). American journal of veterinary research, 68(1), 20-24.

Propofol and xylazine administered IV to horses after 4 hours of desflurane anesthesia improved the quality of transition from lateral recumbency to standing but added potential for harmful respiratory depression during the postanesthetic period.

Steffey, E. P., Mama, K. R., Brosnan, R. J., Imai, A., Maxwell, L. K., Cole, C. A., & Stanley, S. D. (2009). Effect of administration of propofol and xylazine hydrochloride on recovery of horses after four hours of anesthesia with desflurane. American journal of veterinary research, 70(8), 956-963.

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