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Amino Acids

Amino Acids Chart

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds which perform critical roles in processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis. They are containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups as well as a side-chain (R group) specific to each amino acid usually. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other elements which are found in the side-chains of certain amino acids. There are only 20 amino acids in the genetic code, and the 20 animo acids can be classified in many ways. They can be classified according to polarity(polar amino acids and no polar amino acids), pH level, and the type of side chain group, such as aliphatic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc. The amino acids reference charts are as follows.

Hydrophobic Amino Acids

Amino Acids with Hydrophobic Side Chain – Aliphatic
Amino Acids with Hydrophobic Side Chain – Aromatic

Polar Amino Acids

Amino Acids with Polar Neutral Side Chains
Amino Acids with Electricaly Charged Side Chains – Acidic
Amino Acids with Electricaly Charged Side Chains – Basic

Unique Amino Acids

Properties of Common Amino Acids

Amino Acids with Hydrophobic Side Chain - Aliphatic
Alanine

Alanine, Ala, A

Valine

Valine, Val, V

Leucine

Leucine, Leu, L

Isoleucine

Isoleucine, Ile, I

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Amino Acids with Hydrophobic Side Chain – Aromatic
Tryptophan

Tryptophan, Trp, W

Tyrosine

Tyrosine, Tyr, Y

Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine, Phe, F

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Amino Acids with Polar Neutral Side Chains
Asparagine

Asparagine, Asn, N

Cysteine

Cysteine, Cys, C

Glutamine

Glutamine, Gln, Q

Methionine

Methionine, Met, M

Serine

Serine, Ser, S

Threonine

Threonine, Thr, T

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Amino Acids with Electricaly Charged Side Chains – Acidic
Aspartic acid

Aspartic acid, Asp, D

Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid, Glu, E

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Amino Acids with Electricaly Charged Side Chains – Basic
Arginine

Arginine, Arg, R

Histidine

Histidine, His, H

Lysine

Lysine, Lys, K

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Unique Amino Acids
Glycine

Glycine, Gly, G

Proline

Proline, Pro, P

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Properties of Common Amino Acids
3-Letter Symbol 1-Letter Symbol Name Side Chains Molecular Formula CAS.No Molecular weight PI PKa PKb R group
Gly G Glycine Hydrophilic C2H5NO2 56-40-6 75.07 6.06 2.4 9.8 -H
Ala A Alanine Hydrophobic C3H7NO2 56-41-7 89.09 6.11 2.4 9.9 -CH₃
Val V Valine Hydrophobic C5H11NO2 72-18-4 117.2 6 2.4 9.7 -CH-(CH3)2
Leu L Leucine Hydrophobic C6H13NO2 61-90-5 131.2 6.01 2.3 9.7 -CH2-CH(CH3)2
Ile I Isoleucine Hydrophobic C6H13NO2 73-32-5 131.2 6.05 2.3 9.8 -CH(CI3)-CI2-CI3
Phe F Phenylalanine Hydrophobic C9H11NO2 63-91-2 165.2 5.49 2.2 9.3 -CH2-C6H5
Trp W Tryptophane Hydrophobic C11H12N2O2 73-22-3 204.2 5.89 2.5 9.4 -C8NH6
Tyr Y Tyrosine Hydrophobic C9H11NO3 60-18-4 181.2 5.64 2.2 9.2 -CH2-C6H4-OH
Asp D Asparagine Acidic C4H7NO4 6899-03-2 133.1 2.85 2 9.9 -CI2-COOH
Asn N Aspartic acid Hydrophilic C4H8N2O3 70-47-3 132.1 5.41 2.1 8.7 -CI2-CONH2
Glu E Glutamic acid Acidic C5H9NO4 56-86-0 147.1 3.15 2.1 9.5 -(CH2)2-COOH
Lys K Lysine Basic C6H14N2O2 56-87-1 146.2 9.6 2.2 9.1 -(CH2)4-NH2
Gln Q Glutamine Hydrophilic C5H10N2O3 56-85-9 146.2 5.65 2.2 9.1 -(CH2)2-CONH2
Met M Methionine Hydrophobic C5H11NO2S 63-68-3 149.2 5.74 2.1 9.3 -(CI2)-S-CI3
Ser S Serine Hydrophilic C3H7NO3 56-45-1 105.1 5.68 2.2 9.2 -CI2-OH
Thr T Threonine Hydrophilic C4H9NO3 72-19-5 119.1 5.6 2.1 9.1 -CH(CI3)-OH
Cys C Cysteine Hydrophilic C3H7NO2S 52-90-4 121.2 5.05 1.9 11 -CI2-SH
Pro P Proline Hydrophobic C5H9NO2 147-85-3 115.1 6.3 2 11 -C3H6
His H Hlstidine Basic C6H9N3O2 71-00-1 155.2 7.6 1.8 9.3
Arg R Argnine Basic C6H14N4O2 74-79-3 174.2 10.8 1.8 9

PI is the pH of the isoelectric point
PKa is the negative of the logarithm of the dissociation constant for the -COOH group
PKb is the negative of the logarithm of the dissociation constant for the –NH3+ group

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