Angiotensin II AcetatePrice Inquiry
ACE is a target of ACE inhibitor drugs, which decrease the rate of Angiotensin II production. Angiotensin II increases blood pressure by stimulating the Gq protein in vascular smooth muscle cells (which in turn activates an IP3-dependent mechanism leading to a rise in intracellular calcium levels and ultimately causing contraction). Angiotensin II is degraded to angiotensin III by angiotensinases located in red blood cells and the vascular beds of most tissues.
Numerous clinical and laboratory data are now available supporting the hypothesis that the renin-angiotensin system is mechanistically relevant in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The traditional role of the renin-angiotensin system in the context of blood pressure regulation has been modified to incorporate the concept that angiotensin II (Ang II) is a potent proinflammatory agent. In vascular cells, Ang II is a potent stimulus for the generation of reactive oxygen species. As a result, Ang II upregulates the expression of many redox-sensitive cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Extensive data now confirm that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system inhibits atherosclerosis in animal models as well as in humans. These studies provide mechanistic insights into the precise role of Ang II in atherosclerosis and suggest that pharmacologic interventions involving the renin-angiotensin system may be of fundamental importance in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis.
Weiss D, Sorescu D, Taylor W R. Angiotensin II and atherosclerosis[J]. The American journal of cardiology, 2001, 87(8): 25-32.
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a potent effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system that exerts a wide variety of physiological actions on the cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and central and peripheral nervous systems. Angiotensin exerts its actions by binding to specific receptors in the plasma membrane of various tissues. Structure-activity relationship studies and competition-binding experiments have identified a potency series of angiotensin analogues. Such studies have demonstrated that target organs display different preferences for Ang II and homologues such as Ang III and des-[Phe8] angiotensin II. Similarly, agents that normally are considered to be pure receptor antagonists for a given response (tissue) are full agonists in other tissues. Indirect evidence obtained from the above studies have led to the speculation that there are multiple angiotensin receptor subtypes among various tissues as well as within single cell types. Multiple mechanisms of signal transduction have been demonstrated for angiotensin. For example, depending on the effector organ, angiotensin stimulates phosphoinositide turnover and release of internal calcium, modulates voltage-dependent calcium channels, directly activates calcium channels, and inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. Recently, the identification of selective, high-affinity peptide and nonpeptide antagonists has resulted in further characterization of angiotensin receptors into distinct subtypes. In addition, dithiothreitol, an agent that reduces disulfide bridges, has been a useful tool in the characterization of angiotensin receptors as the subtypes apparently are not affected equally by this agent. However, further work needs to be performed to characterize angiotensin receptors with respect to heterogeneity, structure, transducing mechanisms, and physiological function.
Peach M J, Dostal D E. The angiotensin II receptor and the actions of angiotensin II[J]. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology, 1990, 16: S25&hyhen.