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Salusins is a newly discovered cardiovascular active peptide comprising 28 amino acid salusin-α and 20 amino acid salusin-β, an alternative splicing product encoding human torsional stress disorder gene family TOR2A. Salusin-α and salusin-β are detected in human plasma, urine and most tissues. Salusins can rapidly and significantly lower blood pressure and slow heart rate. In addition, It can increase intracellular calcium levels, up-regulate multiple gene expression and promote cell mitosis. Salusin-β can stimulate hypothalamus in rats to cause pituitary arginine pressurization Release.
Mechanism of action
Salusins activate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts via ED50, inducing a transition from GI/Go to S phase. As a mitotic activator, salusins induce the expression of active substance-related genes that increase extracellular calcium into the cell, induce growth-related gene expression such as c-myc and c-los, and salusin-β activates resting vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and Fibroblasts, while salusin-α is less affected. Its growth promoting effect is additive and cell specific. It is a unique, unknown cell surface receptor coupling mitotic signal. The mitogenic effect of Salusins interacts intracellularly via the signaling pathway Ca/CaN, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase C (PKC). Salusins produced by the coronary endothelium promote myocardial growth and cause cardiac hypertrophy through paracrine.
Application of Salusin Peptides
Salusins are widely expressed in hematopoietic system, endocrine system and central nervous system, and have biological effects such as lowering blood pressure, mitosis and calcium signal transduction. It has a relationship with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and renal failure, but whether salusins and its derivatives can develop into a new therapeutic drug, or whether salusins/salusins receptors can become new treatments for hypertension or arteries. The target of atherosclerosis needs further study.
1. Zhao, M. X., Zhou, B., Ling, L., Xiong, X. Q., Zhang, F., Chen, Q., ... & Zhu, G. Q. (2017). Salusin-β contributes to oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Cell death & disease, 8(3), e2690.
2. Watanabe, T., Nishio, K., Kanome, T., Matsuyama, T. A., Koba, S., Sakai, T., ... & Kobayashi, Y. (2008). Impact of salusin-α and-β on human macrophage foam cell formation and coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation, 117(5), 638-648.
3. Dag, Z. O., Tulmac, O. B., Isik, Y., Kisa, U., & Aydin, S. (2018). Changes in serum adropin, salusin alpha and salusin beta, vaspin, and preptin in hyperemesis gravidarum. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY, 45(1), 68-71.