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Biotinylated peptides are compounds that covalently bind biotin to a peptide molecule. Creative Peptides utilizes our expertise in peptide technology, which allows us to establish a stable, efficient and high-throughput peptide synthesis platform to provide a wide range of labeled peptides for our customers. In addition to biotin-labeled peptides, our peptide synthesis business also covers various long peptides, short peptides, cyclic peptides and various types of modified peptides, such as fluorescence and dye labeling, functional group modified peptides, isotope labeled peptides, stapled peptides, fatty acid modified peptides, phosphorylated modified peptides, PEG modified peptides, methylated modified peptides, etc.
Fig. 1. Biotinylated peptides (J. Proteome Res. 2022, 21(9): 2094-2103).
Biotin is a member of the B complex of vitamins with high affinity and specificity for binding to binding proteins such as avidin or streptavidin, forming very stable bonds. In biotinylated peptides, biotin is usually attached to the amino acid residues of the peptide, which can be N-terminal, C-terminal or specific residues on the side chain. The attachment can be realized by different chemical reactions, such as amine or thiol reactions.
Creative Peptides provides custom synthesis services for biotinylated peptides, which are divided into two main parts, one is the preparation and optimization of biotin, and the other is the synthesis and purification of peptides. In addition, we also provide scale-up production of biotinylated peptides and quality control. The label is usually attached to the N-terminal or C-terminal, and the N-terminal biotinylation can be carried out directly on the primary amino group, while the biotinylation is usually carried out on the ε-amino group of C-terminal lysine. In the preparation of biotinylated peptides, an important consideration is to ensure that there are sufficient spacers between the biotin groups and the amino acids expected to interact with macromolecules in the peptides. To avoid spatial barriers, a junction can be inserted between biotin and peptide sequences. Peptides are separated from peptides by various so-called connectors or spacers with different lengths and polarities.
Fig. 2. Fmoc solid-phase synthesis process of biotinylated peptides.
Before preparing biotinylated peptides, biotin customization and optimization is required. First, a suitable biotin is selected according to the customer's requirements, and then the biotin is activated. During this period, the biotin can also be chemically modified by adding specific functional groups to achieve the customer's purpose.
Creative Peptides provides peptide design and custom synthesis services, which can establish a good foundation for the preparation of biotinylated peptides, reserving functional groups suitable for biotinylation in advance. Subsequently, our researchers will react the activated biotin molecules with the peptide to produce the target biotinylated peptide and complete the peptide modification. Finally, the resulting product is isolated and purified, and validated by mass spectrometry and other analyses to obtain the high-purity product we desire.
Firstly, the synthesis reaction of biotinylated peptide is optimized. Then, through systematic optimization experiments and parameter adjustments, the best reaction conditions are determined. Finally, according to the demand of biotinylated peptide, determine the appropriate synthesis batch.
Quality control and analytical steps are essential in large-scale production, and Creative Peptides ensures that biotinylated peptides are produced to the required quality standards by establishing appropriate quality control standards and analytical methods.
Immunoassay. Biotinylated peptides can be used as markers for immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemical staining.
Protein interaction studies. By attaching biotinylated peptides to target proteins, they can be immobilized on solid phase materials and specifically interact with other proteins. This method is widely used in fields such as affinity chromatography, proteomic analysis and protein interaction network studies.
Peptide purification and enrichment. Biotinylated peptides can be rapidly purified and enriched by taking advantage of the high affinity between biotin and affinities.
Cell and tissue labeling. By introducing biotinylated peptides into cells, visual localization and study of target proteins can be achieved by binding to fluorescent dyes or fluorescently labeled affinities.