According to the latest report from World Health Organization, 422 million people have diabetes worldwide, up from 108 million in 1980. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar) or when the body cannot effectively utilize the insulin it produces. Diabetes mellitus can be classified into two main types: type 1 (previously known as insulin-dependent) and type 2 (formerly called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset). Type 1 diabetes was characterized by absolutely lack of the production and secretion of insulin, due to destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells. Patients with type I diabetes require daily administration of insulin. In adults, type I diabetes accounts for approximately 5% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes, which was characterized by insulin resistance and the body’s inability to secrete enough insulin. 90% of diabetes cases belong to this type.
Glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36) amide (GLP-1), a peptide secreted from intestinal enteroendocrine L cells, control systemic blood glucose homeostasis in humans after a meal. Therapies based on the GLP-1 are novel treatment options for type 2 diabetes that act through a variety of complementary mechanisms. Unlike other diabetes drugs, the insulinotropic effect of GLP-1 is self-limiting, as it falls once the plasma glucose level is lowered to normal range, reducing the risk of hypoglycemia. In addition, GLP-1 regulates postprandial glucose elevation through several other mechanisms, including promoting insulin gene transcription, stimulating pancreatic β-cell proliferation and neogenesis, inhibiting β-cell apoptosis, and blocking glucagon release.It also prevents gastric emptying and induces satiety, leading to body weight decrease.
All of these physiological effects underscore GLP-1 as a promising therapeutic agent for treating type 2 diabetes. However, the endogenous GLP-1 has a very short half-life (approximately 2 minutes) due to degradation by the ubiquitous enzymes, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) and neutral endopeptidases (NEP).One of the most promising GLP-1 receptor agonists is exenatide (exendin-4) which is a DPP-IV-resistant peptide that shares structural homology with GLP-1. Nowadays, a couple of stable GLP-1 agonists have been approved by FDA as a new class of diabetic drugs, including Liraglutide, Albiglutide and Dulaglutide etc.
Pramlintide is an analogue of amylin, a small peptide hormone that is released into the bloodstream by the β cells of the pancreas along with insulin after a meal. Like amylin, pramlintide acts centrally and decreases glucagon secretion, slows gastric emptying and induces satiety. It is gained FDA approval as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Insulin therapy is also an approach to the treatment for people with type 1 diabetes and also for many with type 2 diabetes. The goal of insulin therapy is to maintain blood sugar levels within your target range. Insulin was usually administered for the management of severe hyperglycemia after failure of oral agents.
The connecting peptide(C-peptide), is a short 31-amino-acid polypeptide that connects insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in the proinsulin molecule. It is produced in equal amounts to insulin and is the best measure of endogenous insulin secretion in patients with diabetes. In addition, several studies in type 1 diabetic patients describing positive effects of C-peptide replacement therapy on nerve and kidney function have appeared. A long-acting analog, PEG–C-peptide, is under research.
Peptide-based diabetes mellitus treatment is leading a revolution in the treatment of diabetes due to their multi-functional properties. As the most thriving pharmaceutical companies pursue this booming field of research, it is necessary, more than ever, to have high quality cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practice) peptides synthesis. Creative Peptides is one of the primary suppliers of diabetes related peptides with a range of more than 100 peptides, from milligrams to kilograms, generic standard to cGMP standard. As a reliable partner for GMP grade peptides manufacture, we have served a great many of customers by providing high quality peptides (≥99%) for their projects.
Please check our list of some of the diabetes related peptides we offer. To request pricing please feel free to contact us. Can't find the item you are looking for? Please inquire.