Glucagons and Glucagon-Like Peptides (GLP-1 / GLP-2)

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CAT# Product Name M.W Molecular Formula Inquiry
10-101-158 Albiglutide 72970.4029 C3232H5032N864O979S41 Inquiry
10-101-16 Exenatide C186H286N50O62S Inquiry
10-101-18 Glucagon 3482.8 C153H225N43O49S Inquiry
10-101-265 Glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36) amide (human, rat) 3297.67 C149H226N40O45 Inquiry
10-101-351 Retatrutide 4731.33 C221H342N46O68 Inquiry
10-101-46 GLP-1 (7-37) Acetate 3355.71 C151H226N40O46 Inquiry
10-101-59 Liraglutide 3751.2 C172H265N43O51 Inquiry
10-101-83 Exendin (9-39) Acetate 3369.8 C149H234N40O47S Inquiry
10-101-85 GLP-1 (7-36) amide Acetate 3297.68 C149H226N40O45 Inquiry
CAD-111 GLP-1(7-36)-Lys(6-FAM) amide (human, bovine, guinea pig, mouse, rat) 3784.16 C₁₇₆H₂₄₈N₄₂O₅₂ Inquiry
G05001 Glucagon (22-29), human 1038.2 C49H71N11O12S1 Inquiry
G05002 Glucagon (19-29), human 1352.5 C61H89N15O18S1 Inquiry
G05003 Glucagon (1 - 18) 2148.3 Inquiry
G05006 [Des - His1, Glu9] - Glucagon (1 - 29), amide 3358.7 Inquiry
G05007 [Des-His1,Glu9] Glucagon 3359.6 C148H220N40O48S1 Inquiry
G05008 Glucagon, human 3482.6 C153H225N43O49S1 Inquiry
G05009 Glucagon (1 - 29), bovine, human, porcine, FAM- - labeled 3841.1 Inquiry
G05010 Oxyntomodulin / Glucagon 37 4421.9 C192H295N59O60S1 Inquiry
G16001 Glucagon - Like Peptide 1, GLP - 1 (7 - 17) - Cys 1253.3 Inquiry
G16002 Glucagon - Like Peptide 1, GLP - 1 (7 - 36), amide, human 3297.7 Inquiry

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a kind of brain-gut peptide secreted by ileal endocrine cells, which is mainly used as the target of typeⅡdiabetes drugs. Because GLP-1 can inhibit gastric emptying and reduce intestinal peristalsis, it is helpful to control food intake and reduce body weight. In a prospective placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial of 19 obese patients, subcutaneous administration of GLP-1 increased postprandial satiety and reduced dietary intake by an average of 15%. However, because GLP-1 is a polypeptide, it is a major drawback that it can't be given orally.

Mode of Action

It has been confirmed that enteropancreatin promotes islet β cells to secrete insulin in a glucose concentration-dependent manner, and reduces islet α cells to secrete glucagon, thus reducing blood glucose. Normal people in the meal, intestinal trypsin began to secrete, and then promote insulin secretion, in order to reduce the fluctuation of postprandial blood glucose. However, in patients with typeⅡdiabetes mellitus, the "enteropancreatin effect" was damaged, which was mainly manifested as the increase of GLP-1 concentration after meal was lower than that of normal subjects, but its effect of promoting insulin secretion and lowering blood glucose was not significantly damaged. Therefore, GLP-1 and its analogues can be used as an important target for the treatment of typeⅡ diabetes mellitus.

Future

GLP-1 has a variety of functions. However, there are also problems in the application of GLP-1 in clinic, that is, GLP-1 produced by human body is easily degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP- IV) in vivo. Its plasma half-life is less than two minutes, continuous intravenous drip or continuous subcutaneous injection is necessary to produce curative effect, which greatly limits the clinical application of GLP-1. In order to solve this problem, scholars have proposed two schemes, one is to develop GLP-1 analogues to retain the efficacy of GLP-1, but also to resist degradation; the other is to develop DPP- IV inhibitors to prevent the degradation of GLP-1 secreted by the body. At present, some progress has been made in these two aspects. It is believed that with the in-depth study of GLP-1 signaling system, more new targets will be found, so as to develop more new drugs for the treatment of diabetes for the benefit of diabetic patients.

References

  1. Holst, J. J., & Madsbad, S. (2016). Mechanisms of surgical control of type 2 diabetes: GLP-1 is key factor. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, 12(6), 1236-1242.
  2. Loidl, G., Neuhaus, B., Schoenleber, R. O., & Stadelmaier, A. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 16/086,460.
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