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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine and metabolic disease. Its basic pathological characteristics are absolute or relative insufficiency of insulin secretion, or insensitivity of peripheral tissue to insulin, which leads to a systemic disease characterized by glucose metabolism disorder, including fat and protein metabolism disorder. It is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, positive urine glucose and decreased glucose tolerance. According to the World Health Organization, it is disclosed that one person in the world dies of diabetes every 10 seconds, and one person dies of diabetes every 30 seconds. Coupled with blindness, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, diabetes has become a serious public health problem. Because of its wide range of side effects and other factors, the use of hypoglycemic drugs is limited in patients with diabetes. It is predicted that new antidiabetic drugs should have the following characteristics: novel mechanism of action, new therapeutic targets, no antagonism with existing traditional hypoglycemic drugs, preferably synergistic effect, oral administration and so on.
The research and development of anti-diabetic drugs
The research and development of antidiabetic drugs has been successful. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are already on the market. G protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) agonists with new mechanisms are being developed. New therapeutic targets, such as 11β-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase 1 (11 β-HSD1) inhibitor, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitor and glucokinase (GK) agonist, have also made new breakthroughs in the study of new therapeutic targets such as antidiabetic drugs. The success of these studies will provide more methods for the treatment of diabetes in order to achieve better results.
With the deepening of various studies and the continuous improvement of clinical trials, more and more new hypoglycemic drugs have entered the pharmaceutical market. Attention should also be paid to the long-term safety and adverse reactions of these drugs. Before realizing its therapeutic potential, it is still necessary to further study its mechanism, and carry out long-term clinical observation and Meta-analysis on its safety and efficacy.
1. Care, D. (2019). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019. Diabetes Care, 42, S81.
2. Finan, B., Yang, B., Ottaway, N., Smiley, D. L., Ma, T., Clemmensen, C., ... & Campbell, J. E. (2015). A rationally designed monomeric peptide triagonist corrects obesity and diabetes in rodents. Nature medicine, 21(1), 27.