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Dynorphin, Analogs and Sequences
Browse products name by alphabetical order:
|Cat. #||Product Name||Price|
|D05004||Dynorphin B (1-9)||Inquiry|
|D05022||Dynorphin B (1-13)||Inquiry|
|D05036||Dynorphin A amide, porcine||Inquiry|
|D05006||Dynorphin A (9-17), porcine||Inquiry|
|D05009||Dynorphin A (8-17), porcine||Inquiry|
|D05019||Dynorphin A (7-17), porcine||Inquiry|
|D05028||Dynorphin A (6-17), porcine||Inquiry|
|D05042||Dynorphin A (3-8), porcine||Inquiry|
|D05034||Dynorphin A (3-17), porcine||Inquiry|
|D05016||Dynorphin A (3-13), porcine||Inquiry|
|D05035||Dynorphin A (2-17)||Inquiry|
|D05018||Dynorphin A (2-13), porcine||Inquiry|
|D05010||Dynorphin A (2-12), porcine||Inquiry|
|D05003||Dynorphin A (1-9), porcine||Inquiry|
Dynorphin (DYN) is an endogenous opioid κ receptor agonist with a potent and typical opioid action. Pre-dynorphin is a precursor, contains 256 amino acids, and the signal peptide that removes the amino terminus is called prodynorphin. The propeptide is subjected to a series of digestions to produce a number of active DYN fragments, of which DYN A (1-17) is one of the major active fragments of the DYN A family. DYN has a variety of physiological functions, and its earliest recognition is its powerful analgesic function. Subsequently, Christophe A et al. found that high levels of DYN aggravate pain through bradykinin receptors, suggesting that it also mediates nociceptive pain. In addition, subsequent studies have found that it has significant regulatory effects on many functions of the body, such as network regulation of the cardiovascular system, cerebrovascular system, respiratory system, and endocrine immunity.
Mechanism of action
Studies have shown that DYN at physiological concentrations selectively acts on κ receptors on target cells near the release site, increases neuronal K+ conductance, and induces hyperpolarization of neurons. It also inhibits Ca2+ current and Ca2+-dependent secretion, exerting analgesic and neuroprotective effects. Exogenously administered DYN acts in an unnaturally selective manner on cells and receptors near the site of application, activating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and bradykinin receptors, directly causing intracellular Ca2+ overload. Moreover, excessive NO is produced through the NMDA-Ca2+-NOS/NO pathway, which causes pain and even neurotoxic effects. The end result of DYN is affected by its concentration, site of action, type of receptor acting, and even the type of neuron released.
Application of Dynorphin Analogs and Sequences
Because DYN can inhibit morphine withdrawal symptoms and enhance the painful effects of morphine-tolerant animals, it can also inhibit the side effects of morphine on drug-resistant animals (such as respiratory depression), so it can be used in patients with opioid addiction. DYN is not easy to produce dependence and is an important condition for treating addicted patients. It is involved in the process of delayed pathological damage secondary to central nervous system injury and is the most potent of the large endogenous opioid peptide family.
1. Anderson, R. I. , & Becker, H. C. . (2017). Role of the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor system in the motivational effects of ethanol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.
2. Karkhanis, A. , Holleran, K. M. , & Jones, S. R. . (2017). Dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor signaling in preclinical models of alcohol, drug, and food addiction. International Review of Neurobiology, 136, 53.