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Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptides (PACAP) and Fragments
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Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) is a new neuropeptide discovered by Miyata et al. in Japan in 1989. It is named for its high activation of rat pituitary cell adenylate cyclase (AC). PACAP is a polypeptide with a variety of biological activities. PACAP-38 and PACA-27 are composed of 38 and 27 amino acids, respectively. The amino acid sequence of the latter is identical to the N-terminal 1 to 27 amino acid residues of PACAp-38. PACAP is widely distributed in animals and found that PACAP and its immunologically reactive substances are widely present in the animal's nerve center and peripheral nervous system, and have a variety of important biological functions, including possible involvement in the nervous system, digestive system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, reproductive system and other regulatory functions.
Mechanism of action
PACAP works by interacting with receptor substances in the human body. PACAP in the pancreatic ganglia controls the parasympathetic nerve, while the parasympathetic nerve plays an important role in early insulin secretion during feeding, which can enhance the direct regulation of islet B cells on blood glucose. In the pancreas and insulin-producing cells (D), there are two PACAP receptors, PAC1 and VPAC2, which regulate insulin secretion by activating the PACAP-specific receptor PAC1-R. PACAP is able to expand the secretion of insulin by the blood sugar-induced secretion. Therefore, we can see that PACAP maintains the body's sugar balance by regulating insulin secretion. PACAP inhibits LPS-induced IL-6 production by binding PAC1-R in macrophages. The specific receptor PAC1 regulates the apoptosis process of T lymphocytes and plays an important role in the body's immune response.
Application of PACAP
PACAP can regulate the sugar balance in the body by regulating the secretion of insulin. On the other hand, PACAP produces different glial cells, macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophils in vitro and in vivo through different mechanisms. It can regulate the activity of inflammatory cells and inhibit the chemotaxis of neutrophils. Therefore PACAP can be used for diabetes as well as regulating the immune system.
1. Martinez Carmen, Abad Catalina, Delgado Mario, et al. Anti-inflammatory rod in septic shock of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor [J]. Proc Natl Acad S ci USA, 2002, 99(2), P1053-P1058.
2. Jamen F, Puech R, Bockaert J, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptors mediating insulin secretion in rodent pancreatic islets are coupled to adenylate cyclase but not to PLC[J]. Endocrinology, 2002, 143(4), P1253-P1259.