Angiogenin and Related Peptides
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Angiogenin is a group of secreted cytokines that play an important role in revascularization, embryonic vascular, and cancer. There are four members in the family of angiogenin: Ang-1, Ang-2, Ang-3 and Ang-4, which have different functions in biological processes. Ang-1 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis and promotes endothelial cell survival by activating its receptor tyrosine kinase Tie-2. The amino acid composition of Ang-1 and Ang-2 is partly identical and has a similar structure. Ang-2 participates in angiogenesis, remodeling and endometrial destabilization. The structure of Ang-3 cloned from mouse and Ang-4 cloned from human differed greatly from Ang-1 and Ang-2. Functionally, Ang-3 is similar to Ang-2, which acts as an antagonist. Agn-4 is similar to Ang-1, which acts as an activator.
Mechanism of action
Ang-1 and Ang-2 are involved in the development of embryo. In the first 3 months of the embryonic placenta, Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie-2 are located in the trophoblast and exert function by autocrine. Ang-2 stimulates the synthesis of trophoblast DNA. Agn-1 acts as a potent chemotactic factor in the trophoblast. Agn-1 is mainly expressed in stromal cells surrounding the main trunk of villus, maintaining and promoting maternal blood vessels stable and mature in late pregnancy. Ang-2 is expressed in all villous stromal cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that angiogenin is closely associated with the formation of embryonic heart and vessels.
Application of Angiogenin and Related Peptides
High expression of Ang-2 was found in many tumor blood vessels such as colon cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Ang-2 can be used as an early marker of tumor cell infiltration of blood vessels. Therefore, it has a certain application prospect in predicting small tumor metastasis and pathological imaging analysis. Additionally, Ang-1 contributes to the stabilization of vascular endothelial cells, preventing anti-inflammatory effects like leakage. Ang-1 also has certain therapeutic effect on blood deficiency diseases, which can indirectly increase the number of new blood vessels.
1. Shapiro R, Riordan J F, Vallee B L. Characteristic ribonucleolytic activity of human angiogenin[J]. Biochemistry, 1986, 125(12):3527-3532.
2. Lyons S M, Fay M M, Akiyama Y, et al. RNA Biology of Angiogenin: Current State and Perspectives[J]. Rna Biology, 2017, 14(2):171-178.