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Growth Factors and Analogs
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Growth factor is a natural substance, which can stimulate cell growth, proliferation, healing and cell differentiation, which play an important role in the regulation of a variety of cell processes. Growth factors are usually used as intercellular signaling molecules, such as cytokines and hormones bind to specific receptors on the surface of the target cell. They usually promote cell differentiation and maturation, which are different in different growth factors. For example, epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes osteogenic differentiation, while fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor stimulate vascular differentiation (angiogenesis).
Structure of Growth Factors
Cytokine receptors can be composed of multiple peptide chains in the form of homodimers or heterodimers. Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) has three forms of high, moderate and low affinity, which are composed of α chain monomer, β and γ chain dimer, and α, β and γ chain trimer, respectively. This also suggests that the common peptide chain structure of other cytokines is similar to that of IL-2R. Darnell reveals the transduction information of INF through tyrosinase JAK-JAK substrate (JAK-STATs) pathway in interferon-α (INF-α) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) models. At present, it has been confirmed that the special activities of six STATs, cytokines can form unique STATs homomorphism and heterodimerization. When many signal transduction pathways do not contain JAKs or TATs, the heteropolymerization of transducers can lead to essentially different biological effects.
Function of Growth Factors and Analogs
- The experimental study of cytokines showed that endothelial cell (EC), macrophage, platelet and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) could produce and secrete a variety of growth factors. Such as endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), epidermal growth factor, endothelial growth factor and so on. These growth factors stimulate the division and reproduction of the main target cells EC and VSMC through paracrine and autocrine, activate the intracellular enzyme system, and promote cell proliferation.
- The special role of GF cell growth factor in beauty is to quickly activate the epidermal cells of the skin, the activity of tissue fiber cells and collagen fiber cells, and promote the proliferation of skin capillaries. Accelerate blood circulation and metabolic growth of skin cells, repair skin damage and aging sites, remove aging cuticle. By promoting the synthesis of fibroblasts, regulating the content of skin moisturizing factor (NMF), improving the state of skin water deficiency, flattening wrinkles and restoring skin elasticity at the first time, Completely solve the skin dry, rough, wrinkles, dark, yellowing, skin relaxation and other problems.
The effects of many peptide growth factors include stimulating and inhibiting cell proliferation and are not related to cell growth control. A peptide can have both stimulating and inhibitory activities in a single cell, depending on the context in which other signaling molecules exist. New approaches for cancer therapy are being developed that intervene at various steps in growth factor signaling pathways.
1. Bartlett, C. S., Jeansson, M., & Quaggin, S. E. (2016). Vascular growth factors and glomerular disease. Annual review of physiology, 78, 437-461.
2. Aaronson, S. A. (1991). Growth factors and cancer. Science, 254(5035), 1146-1153.