Apelin Peptides

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CAT# Product Name M.W Molecular Formula Inquiry
A22001 Apelin-13, human, bovine 1536.8 C69H111N22O16S Inquiry
A22007 Apelin-36, bovine 4178.9 Inquiry
A22009 [Ala13]-Apelin-13 1474.7 Inquiry
A22010 [Phe17]-Apelin 17 2138.6 Inquiry
A22011 [Pyr-1]-Apelin-13 1533.8 Inquiry
A22012 Apelin (23-57)-Prepro (Human) 3665.1 Inquiry
A22013 (Tyr0)-Apelin-13 (human, bovine, mouse, rat) 1714.03 C78H120N24O18S Inquiry
A22014 (Ala13)-Apelin-13 (human, bovine, mouse, rat) acetate salt C₆₉H₁₁₁N₂₃O₁₆S Inquiry
A22015 (Ala13)-Apelin-13 (human, bovine, mouse, rat) trifluoroacetate salt C₆₃H₁₀₇N₂₃O₁₆S Inquiry
A22016 (Pyr1)-Apelin-13 (human, bovine, mouse, rat) trifluoroacetate salt C₆₉H₁₀₈N₂₂O₁₆S Inquiry
A22017 Apelin 12 1422.72 C₆₄H₁₀₃N₂₁O₁₄S Inquiry
A22018 Apelin-15 (63-75) 1618.94 C67H119N29O16S Inquiry
A22019 Apelin-15 (63-77) 1863.24 C81H135N31O18S Inquiry
A22020 Apelin-16, human, bovine 2010.4 Inquiry

Introduction

Apelin is an adipokines secreted by fat cells, widely distributed in tissues in human body, especially in cardiovascular tissues. The precursor of aplin consists of 77 amino acids, which can be cleaved into multiple mature apelin active peptide fragments, such as Apelin-36, apelin-17, and apelin-13. Aplin and its receptor constitute the Apelin/APJ system, highly expressed in endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and cardiomyocytes. Apelin/APJ system is involved in the maintenance and regulation of vascular function. Studies have shown that apelin has vasoactive effects and is able to relax or contract arteriovenous vessels. In addition, the expression of apelin and APJ in endothelial cells can also promote embryonic angiogenesis, indicating that apelin plays an essential role in vascular regulation.

Mechanism of action

Apelin is a dilator of arteries and veins. The mechanism is that apelin, produced and released by vascular endothelial cells, binds to and activates adjacent APJ receptors, and stimulates the production and release of NO by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) of vascular endothelial cells, leading to vasodilation. Subsequent studies demonstrated that apelin-induced vasodilation increases intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels by directly activating the L-arginine/NOS/NO pathway in vascular endothelial cells, and induces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells and reduces vascular tone.

Application of Apelin Peptides

As the functions of aplin peptides mentioned above, apelin peptides are closely associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, acute coronary syndrome and arrhythmia. Apelin and its receptor APJ are widely distributed in the body, and accumulating evidence shows that they are involved in the cardiovascular system. Although the exact physiological functions and pathophysiological effects of the Apelin/APJ system have not been fully understood, its potential role in cardiovascular diseases may make itself a new target for the diagnosis and treatment of related diseases in the future.

References

  1. Cheng B, Chen J, Bai B, et al. Neuroprotection of apelin and its signaling pathway.[J]. Peptides, 2012, 37(1):171-173.
  2. Wang G, Anini Y, Wei W, et al. Apelin, a new enteric peptide: localization in the gastrointestinal tract, ontogeny, and stimulation of gastric cell proliferation and of cholecystokinin secretion[J]. Endocrinology, 2004, 145(3):1342-1348.
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