Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Analogs and Fragments
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Neuropeptide Y is an amidated 36 amino acid peptide that is located in synaptic particles. At the same time, it can release in response to the synaptic transmission. Studies show that it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral mammalian nervous systems. Neuropeptide Y exerts its potent effects on many targets of the central nervous system and the periphery. This peptide acts as a vasoconstrictor and is capable of enhancing the action of other pressors, but also inhibits the release of sympathetic nerve fiber emitters. In addition, the mature neuropeptide Y protein is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the central nervous system and has an amidated C-terminal residue.
Mechanism of action
Neuropeptide Y a 36-mer neuromodulator involves in the central and peripheral control of blood pressure and in feeding behavior and obesity and binds to the receptors with nanomolar affinity. The different receptor subtypes are located in various tissues, in the central nervous system, and in the periphery. Stress exaggerates diet-induced obesity through a peripheral mechanism that is mediated by neuropeptide Y in the abdominal white adipose tissue. For example, stressors that are exposed to cold or aggressiveness cause neuropeptide Y to be released from the sympathetic nerves, which in turn regulates the role of neuropeptide Y and its Y2 receptor in abdominal fat in a glucocorticoid-dependent manner. This positive feedback response of neuropeptide Y results in the growth of abdominal fat.
Application of Neuropeptide Y
Neuropeptide Y has been shown to have an effect on emotional behavior and alcohol intake using a rodent model. Some studies showed that administration of neuropeptide Y to the paraventricular nucleus of the rat repeatedly produced a feeding behavior that leads to obesity and leads to overeating in diabetic animals. In addition, neuropeptide Y appears to affect anxiety and memory. There is increasing evidence show that in preclinical and clinical neuropeptide Y is involved in emotional disorders such as depression. In addition, neuropeptide Y has a role in alcohol intake, dependence, and withdrawal.
1. Wieland, H. A., Willim, K., & Doods, H. N. (1995). Receptor binding profiles of NPY analogues and fragments in different tissues and cell lines. Peptides, 16(8), 1389-1394.
2. Thorsell, A. (2007). Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in alcohol intake and dependence. Peptides, 28(2), 480-483.
3. Abid, K., Rochat, B., Lassahn, P. G., Stocklin, R., Michalet, S., Brakch, N., ... & Grouzmann, E. (2009). Kinetic study of neuropeptide Y (NPY) proteolysis in blood and identification of NPY3-35, a new peptide cleaved by plasma kallikrein. Journal of Biological Chemistry, jbc-M109.