Effects of tripeptide-3 in skin

2018-09-21

Neurotransmitter Inhibitor Peptides 

Peptides used in topical anti-aging products have multiple applications. Gorouhi and Maibach categorized topical peptides into 4 groups based on their modes of action: carrier peptides, signal peptides, enzyme-inhibitor peptides, and neurotransmitter inhibitor peptides. In the case of neurotransmitter inhibitor peptides, it can penetrate skin and relax muscles, causing the reduction and softening of wrinkles and fine lines to reduce common ageing signs.

An overview of Tripeptide-3

Tripeptide-3 (beta-Ala-Pro-Dab-NH-benzyl) is used as an intensive anti-wrinkle agent and mimics the effect of Waglerlin-1, a peptide that is found in the venom of the temple vipers, Tropidolaemus wagleri. This neurotoxin also binds reversibly to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, preventing depolarization and contraction of the muscle. Tripeptide-3 causes reversible antagonism of muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the post-synaptic membrane, preventing binding of acetylcholine to the receptors. In vitro studies show that tripeptide-3 (0.5 mM) reduces muscle contraction, reducing muscle contractions by 82% after two hours of treatment. Tripeptide-3 is composed of beta-Ala-Pro-Dab-NH-benzyl x2 AcOH, and is also called Syn-Ake. In vivo study showed that after applying the 4% formulation to the forehead for 28 days, the test volunteers had a wrinkle reduction of up to 52% twice daily.

Conclusion

Topical anti-aging products are very popular because people are seeking cost-effective, noninvasive methods to improve their appearance. The most common visible sign of ageing is wrinkles which can be reduced by muscle contraction through release of neurotransmitter. Tripeptide-3 acts at the post synaptic membrane, and is a reversible antagonist of the acetylcholine receptor which also shows positive effect on anti-ageing symptoms.

References:

1. Reddy, B. Y., Jow, T., & Hantash, B. M. (2012). Bioactive oligopeptides in dermatology: Part II. Experimental dermatology, 21 (8), 569-575.

2. Gorouhi, F., & Maibach, H. I. (2016). Topical peptides and proteins for aging skin. Textbook of Aging Skin, 1-33.

3. Trookman, N. S., Rizer, R. L., Ford, R., Ho, E., & Gotz, V. (2009). Immediate and long-term clinical benefits of a topical treatment for facial lines and wrinkles. The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology, 2(3), 38.

4. Zhou, B. R., Ma, L. W., Liu, J., Zhang, J. A., Xu, Y., Wu, D., ... & Luo, D. (2016). Protective effects of soy oligopeptides in ultraviolet B-induced acute Photodamage of human skin. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2016.

5. Popplewell, N. (2012). Anti-ageing and beyond: anti-ageing. South African Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Review, 39(1), 20-21.

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