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Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) Fragments
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The acyl carrier protein was first discovered in colibacillus in 1976. Subsequent studies found that the acyl carrier protein, encoded by the acpP gene in colibacillus, has 77 amino acids with a relative molecular mass of 8860. Acyl carrier proteins are widely found in microorganisms, plants and mammals, such as yeast, bacillus, mycobacterium, vibrio, helicobacter, mice, and its functions and features have been clearly described. The acyl carrier protein is closely related to the biosynthesis of many natural products, such as fatty acids and polyketides.
Mechanism of action
In the biosynthetic pathway, the acyl carrier protein is responsible for the transportation of the product as an intermediate, transferring from the first enzyme active site to another enzyme active site until the formation of the final product like fatty acids, polyketides. Researchers have found that the acyl carrier protein is initially present mainly in the formation of inactive apo-ACP in the cell. In order to exert function, the initial inactive apo-ACP is converted to an active holo-ACP through a special post-translational modification. The acyl carrier protein acts as an essential protein in the elongation of fatty acid chain and reduction cycle, binding to the acyl chain and transporting it to the active site of different enzymes.
Application of Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) Fragments
Acyl carrier proteins are capable of interacting with various acyl chains while providing acyl groups for various natural products. They are an indispensable cofactor in cellular metabolic pathways and play important roles in the metabolism of all cells, including the produce of fatty acid synthetase and polyketide synthase. Through these routes, it is possible to synthesize a variety of natural active products, such as macrolides, fatty acids, aromatic polyketides and more on, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of diseases. The deeper understanding of the structure and function of acyl carrier proteins is significant for reconstituting new biosynthetic pathways and synthesizing some natural or non-natural active products for the treatment of cancer, obesity and other diseases.
1. Zitko, J. & Doležal, M. Enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase inhibitors: an updated patent review (2011 – 2015). Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 26, 1079 (2016).
2. Byers, D. M. & Huansheng, G. Acyl carrier protein: structure-function relationships in a conserved multifunctional protein family. Biochemistry & Cell Biology-biochimie Et Biologie Cellulaire 85, 649-662 (2007).