Galanins and Galanin Message Associated Peptide (GMAP) Fragments

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CAT# Product Name M.W Molecular Formula Inquiry
G01001 Galanin (2-11) 1136.3 C54H81N13O14 Inquiry
G01002 Galanin (1 - 13)/ Galanin Like Peptide (GALP) (9 - 21), common 1348.5 Inquiry
G01003 Entero-Kassinin 1364.5 C58H89N15O21S1 Inquiry
G01004 Galanin Message Associated Peptide, GMAP (44 - 59), amide 1485.6 Inquiry
G01005 GMAP (25-41), amide 1903.3 C90H143N21O22S1 Inquiry
G01006 Leptin (57 - 74) 1921.3 Inquiry
G01008 Galantide 2199.6 C104H151N25O26S1 Inquiry
G01009 M35 2233.6 C107H153N27O26 Inquiry
G01010 Galanin Like Peptide, GALP (41 - 60), human, porcine, rat 2332.8 Inquiry
G01011 Galanin (1-13)-Spantide I 2828.3 C138H199N35O30 Inquiry
G01012 GMAP (16-41), amide 2944.5 C134H219N35O37S1 Inquiry
G01013 Galanin (1 - 13) - Neuropeptide Y (25 - 36), amide, M32 2962.4 Inquiry
G01015 Galanin, rat 3164.5 C141H211N43O41 Inquiry
G01016 Galanin Like Peptide (GALP) N - terminal fragment, porcine 3166.6 Inquiry
G01018 Preprogalanin 28-67, rat 4489.1 C198H312N62O58 Inquiry
G01019 GMAP (1-41), amide 4643.3 C206H326N56O64S1 Inquiry
G01020 Galanin Like Peptide, GALP, porcine 6204.1 Inquiry
G01021 Galanin Like Peptide (GALP), rat 6502.4 Inquiry
G01022 (Abz-Gly1)-Galanin (1-10)-Lys(retro-m-nitro-Tyr-H) amide (human) 1535.68 Inquiry
G01023 (Ala6,D-Trp8,L-alaninol15)-Galanin (1-15) 1655.92 Inquiry

Introduction

Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide composed of 29 to 30 amino acids, and its N-terminus and C-terminus are glycine and alanine residues, respectively. GAL is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and participates in various biological functions such as feeding, pain, endocrine, neuroprotection, learning and memory, and sexual and reproductive. In particular, it is closely related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), neuronal development and regeneration, and pain sensitivity caused by nerve damage. GAL also protects nerve cells. The galanin receptor (GalR), which is GalR1, GalR2, and GalR3, respectively, belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor. The galanin-message-associated peptide (GMAP) is a peptide consisting of 59 or 60 amino acid residues immediately following galanin in pre pro-galanin. It has only been found to have a role in spinal cord injury repair and has been less studied.

Mechanism of action

As an inhibitory tempering, galanin regulates neurotransmitter release through hyperpolarization. In depression, anxiety and stress response, galanin has important regulatory effects on NE and 5-HT neurons. Studies have shown that galanin inhibits the release of NE and 5-HT from neurons in the blue spot and dorsal raphe nucleus. In hippocampus and hypothalamic slices, galanin inhibits depolarization-induced glutamate release, hyperpolarizing post-synaptic neurons, and producing endogenous anticonvulsant effects. GalR1 activation of Gi/o protein also opens G protein-coupled inward-rectifying K+ channels and promotes mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. GalR2 promotes a variety of intracellular pathways by transmitting signals coupled to multiple types of G proteins. The GalR3 signal coupling mechanism is similar to GalR1.

Application of Galanins and Galanin Message Associated Peptide (GMAP) Fragments

The numerous physiological functions of galanin and GalR suggest that they play important roles in a variety of related diseases such as Alzheimer' disease, epilepsy, alcoholism, diabetes, neuropathic pain, depression, and cancer. GalR can be used as a new potential drug target, bringing new solutions to the treatment of these diseases. In patients with AD, a large number of cholinergic neurons were lost and galanin expression was up-regulated. Galanin stimulates cholinergic neurons and promotes the release of acetylcholine (ACTH) from all remaining cells in the brain of patients with AD.

References

  1. Millón C, Floresburgess, A. , Narváez M, Borrotoescuela, D. O. , Gago, B. , & Santín L, et al. (2017). The neuropeptides galanin and galanin (1-15) in depression-like behaviours. Neuropeptides, 64, 39-45.
  2. Sipkova, Kramarikova, Hynie, et al. (2017). The galanin and galanin receptor subtypes, its regulatory role in the biological and pathological functions. Physiological Research, 66(5).
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