TMEM16F and dynamins control expansive plasma membrane reservoirs

Deisl C, Hilgemann DW, Syeda R, Fine M. Nat Commun. 2021 Aug 17;12(1):4990.

Cells can expand their plasma membrane laterally by unfolding membrane undulations and by exocytosis. Here, we describe a third mechanism involving invaginations held shut by the membrane adapter, dynamin. Compartments open when Ca activates the lipid scramblase, TMEM16F, anionic phospholipids escape from the cytoplasmic monolayer in exchange for neutral lipids, and dynamins relax. Deletion of TMEM16F or dynamins blocks expansion, with loss of dynamin expression generating a maximally expanded basal plasma membrane state. Re-expression of dynamin2 or its GTPase-inactivated mutant, but not a lipid binding mutant, regenerates reserve compartments and rescues expansion. Dynamin2-GFP fusion proteins form punctae that rapidly dissipate from these compartments during TMEM16F activation. Newly exposed compartments extend deeply into the cytoplasm, lack numerous organellar markers, and remain closure-competent for many seconds. Without Ca, compartments open slowly when dynamins are sequestered by cytoplasmic dynamin antibodies or when scrambling is mimicked by neutralizing anionic phospholipids and supplementing neutral lipids. Activation of Ca-permeable mechanosensitive channels via cell swelling or channel agonists opens the compartments in parallel with phospholipid scrambling. Thus, dynamins and TMEM16F control large plasma membrane reserves that open in response to lateral membrane stress and Ca influx.

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