Introduction of skin aging
Natural aging of the skin results in decreased production and increased degradation of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, elastin and laminin. The extracellular matrix, in addition to providing structural support, also influences cellular behaviors such as differentiation and proliferation. These functions are mediated through small peptides (matrikines) derived from proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. These matrikines act as signal proteins between matrix component and cell wall receptors. Various peptides affect the aging process by modulating collagen homeostasis. The use of peptides has now been extended as cosmeceuticals, a concept introduced by Dr. Kligman for agents distributed across a broad spectrum, lying somewhere between pure cosmetics and drugs. Cosmeceuticals are products that deliver a biologic activity in support of cosmetic claims.
An overview of palmitoyl tripeptide-5
Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 (palmitoyl-lysyl-valyl-lysine) is a synthetic signal peptide, also known as palmitoyl tripeptide-3, Pal-KVK and SYN-COLL, which mimics thrombospondin and causes the sequence Arg-PheLys to bind to the inactive form of transforming growth factor-β, inducing the release of active transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Simply speaking, palmitoyl tripeptide-5 mimics the human body's own mechanisms and speeds up the synthesis of collagen in the skin.
The studies and function of palmitoyl tripeptide-5
Animal studies have indicated that palmitoyl tripeptide-5 may increase collagen synthesis. In vitro studies have shown that palmitoyl tripeptide-5 can prevent collagen breakdown by interfering with MMP1 and MMP3 collagen degradation. Furthermore, in a controlled trial, 60 healthy volunteers received 2.5% palmitoyl tripeptide-5 versus 10% palmitoyl pentapeptide-3 cream versus placebo cream twice daily for 84 days. Palmitoyl tripeptide-5 significantly decreased the average relief and maximum relief parameters by 12 per cent.
Palmitoyl tripeptide-5 can be used as an important ingredient in anti-ageing skincare products, not only because it can address extracellular matrix damage and inhibits skin inflammation, but also because it can firm and moisturize the skin.
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