Angiotensin Ⅱ is a kind of peptides generally produced by the hydrolysis of the angiotensin Ⅰ under the angiotensin converting enzyme. In human body, it is located in the vascular smooth muscle, the adrenal cortical globular cells, and some parts of the brain, heart and kidney cells where it has various physiological and biochemical effects on human body.
According to the results of the present study, there are three separate generating ways of angiotensin II in the body. The first one is the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) pathway, and it is the normal way. And the second way is independent of the chymase. Besides, the third way do not only not depend on the ACE, but also not reply on the chymase. Instead, the angiotensin II generates through some other ways, such as the kallikrein pathway and the cathepsin pathway.
After combining with angiotensin receptor, angiotensin Ⅱ could cause a series of corresponding physiological effects, including shrinking systemic artery and vein so that the blood pressure is raised and the blood flowed to the heart is increased; increasing the amount of vasoconstrictive fiber released; making the sympathetic constriction center nervous; stimulating the synthesis of adrenal and the release of aldosterone; enhancing thirst up to drinking behavior; and inhibiting fibrinolysis. Studies have shown that the angiotensin Ⅱ inhibits fibronectin but stimulates plasminogen to activate the expression of its inhibiting factor, thereby reducing fibrinolysis and promoting thrombosis.
Usually, angiotensin II acetate acts directly on adrenal stimulation of aldosterone release, and is medically used for hypotension caused by traumatic or postoperative shock, and general or lumbar anesthesia. Moreover, the current detection in plasma angiotensin Ⅱ has become a major index of the classification diagnosis, the treatment and the research of the primary and secondary hypertension. It is of great significance for the diagnosis, the treatment and the pathogenesis research of renal diseases.
Khanna, A., English, S. W., Wang, X. S., Ham, K., Tumlin, J., Szerlip, H., ... & McCurdy, M. T. (2017). Angiotensin II for the treatment of vasodilatory shock. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(5), 419-430.