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Introduction L-ornithine α-ketoglutarate monohydrate, with some synonyms like OKG, OAKG and L-ornithine 2-oxoglutarate monohydrate, is a salt which is formed from two molecules of ornithine and one molecule of α-ketoglutarate.

Introduction Ganirelix, a synthetic decapeptide compound, is a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist preparation developed for the prevention of premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges in women undergoing ovarian stimulation.

Introduction Gonadorelin hydrochloride, with the same amino acid sequence as endogenous gonadorelin, which is Pro-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2, is one of the commercially available gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues and agonists.

Introduction Growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) (human) acetate is an acetate salt of an amidated synthetic 29-amino acid peptide (GRF (1–29) NH2), which is designed to make sure the stability of GRF in vitro.

Introduction Timonacic's chemical name, L-Syrosin-4, is a new anti-tumor drug that converts cancer cells into normal cells. Experimental studies have shown that Timonacic can increase cAMP concentration by adenosine cyclase of cells.

Introduction Linaclotide, sold under the brand name Linzess, is a synthetic tetradecapeptide and guanylate cyclase (GC-C) receptor agonist which is a class of compounds that increase the intra- and extracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations by binding to the heat-stable enterotoxin receptors.

Introduction Kassinin, a new peptide of amphibian origin, has been traced in the skin of the African frog Kassina senegalensis. Kassinin belongs to the tachykinin family which are peptides with the same consensus C-terminal sequence, viz.

Introduction  Fertirelin acetate, classified into peptide hormone, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist or analogue of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH), which is synthesized in the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus, and is released from the axonal end to the blood vessels of the first capillary plexus of the pituitary portal system when transported to the pituitary gland.

Introduction  DAMME (DA) is a guanine, often referred to as FK 33-824 (FK), which is a long-acting enkephalin analog. Natural enkephalin is metabolized faster in the body and can only exert weak and transient analgesic effects.

Introduction NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) acetate, a structural analogue of L-arginine, also named tilarginine acetate and methylarginine acetate, is a non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor which can provide inhibitory effects on all three NOS isoforms that are nNOS, eNOS, iNOS, respectively.

Introduction Topotecan (TPT) is a water-soluble, semi-synthetic camptothecin derivative developed by Smithkline Beecham, USA. Its chemical name is 9-dimethylamino 10-hydroxyhydrocamptothecin, which is superior to CPT and 10-hydroxy CPT.

Introduction  Eptifibatide acetate is a white or white-off powder, soluble in water and freely soluble in 1% acetic in water, with the empirical formula C35H49N11O9S2 and molecular weight of 831.96. It is a cyclic heptapeptide which can block the platelet receptor GP IIb/IIIa and prevent the formation of platelet thrombi.

Introduction  Vasoconstrictor substances, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine, have been mingled with local anesthetics to decrease their toxic effects and to prolong the depth of the anesthesia in clinic.

Introduction  Etomidate, a highly selective intravenous anesthetic agent, was first synthesized at Janssen Pharmaceuticals in the early 1964 and wasused for the induction of general anesthesia and sedation for short procedures such as reduction of tracheal intubation, cardioversion, and dislocated joints.

Introduction Cetrorelix acetate (C70H92ClN17O14, referred to as cetrorelix), a synthetic decapeptide with 5 amino acids in the D-configuration, is a potent, pure competitive antagonist at the human gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor.

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