Somatostatin & Analogs
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Somatostatin & Analogs

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M34140635H[Nal3]Octreotide acetateInquiry
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O1001OctreotideInquiry
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S07018(D-2-Nal5,Cys6·11,Tyr7,D-Trp8,Val10,2-Nal12)-Somatostatin-14 (5-12) amideInquiry
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S07041Tyr-(D-Dab4,Arg5,D-Trp8)-cyclo-Somatostatin-14 (4-11)Inquiry
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Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH), which is a hypothalamic peptide hormone and can inhibit the secretion of growth hormone, glucagon, insulin, gastrin and secretory hormone, and play a role in neurotransmission. Somatostatin has two active forms: one is composed of 14 amino acids, the other is composed of 28 amino acids.

Tissue distribution

Somatostatin is distributed all over the human body, but it is especially abundant in the cortex, hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord and other nerve tissues. Somatostatin has also been found in the nerves of the heart, thyroid, skin, eyes and thymus. The gastrointestinal tract and pancreas are rich in somatostatin, which is produced by paracrine and endocrine-like D cells and through intestinal nerves. Somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 were expressed in the whole gastrointestinal tract.

Function of Somatostatin (SST)

  1. It can inhibit the secretion and release of growth hormone
  2. It has a strong inhibitory effect on the function of a variety of endocrine and exocrine cells in the basic state and stimulated state, and it also has a strong inhibitory effect on the secretion and release of growth hormone. For example, it can inhibit the secretion of insulin, glucagon, gastrin and gastric acid, etc.
  3. SST, located in the central nervous system can be used as a neurotransmitter to regulate brain movement and recognition.
  4. As an important hormone regulatory peptide for cell proliferation and differentiation, it can inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells.

Conclusion

To sum up, somatostatin and its long-acting analogues have good curative effect in the treatment of a variety of clinical diseases. In addition to its direct endocrine inhibition, its indirect inhibition of secretion, contraction of visceral blood vessels and anti-tumor activity make this kind of drugs become an effective means of clinical refractory diseases. In order to avoid abuse, more research is still needed to support its positive effect on disease remission and survival prognosis. At the same time, efforts should be made to develop a new generation of preparations with fewer side effects and better curative effect.

References
1. Prasad, V. (2018). Radiolabeled Somatostatin receptor analogs in neuroendocrine tumor.
2. Sun, L., & H Coy, D. (2016). Somatostatin and its analogs. Current drug targets17(5), 529-537.
3. Kabasakal, L., & Şahin, O. E. (2019). Somatostatin Receptor Imaging in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. In Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases (pp. 353-357). Springer, Cham.

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