Parathyroid Hormones and Related Peptides

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CAT# Product Name M.W Molecular Formula Inquiry
P03001 Parathyroid Hormone (1-34), human, C-Terminal 4604.3 Inquiry
P03002 pTH (73-84) (human) 1273.45 C54H96N16O19 Inquiry
P03003 Parathyroid Hormone (70-84), human 1587.8 C67H118N20O24 Inquiry
P03004 Parathyroid Hormone (69-84), human 1716.9 C72H125N21O27 Inquiry
P03005 pTH-Related Protein (1-16) (human, mouse, rat) 1790.01 C77H128N24O25 Inquiry
P03006 Parathyroid Hormone (28-48), human 2148.4 C95H150N28O29 Inquiry
P03007 pTH (64-84) (human) 2231.49 C94H163N27O35 Inquiry
P03008 [Asn76] Parathyroid Hormone (64-84), human 2231.5 C94H163N27O35 Inquiry
P03009 (Tyr27)-pTH (27-48) (human) 2311.58 C104H159N29O31 Inquiry
P03010 [Tyr63] Parathyroid Hormone (63-84), human 2394.7 C103H172N28O37 Inquiry
P03011 pTH-Related Protein (67-86) amide (human, bovine, dog, mouse, ovine, rat) 2409.72 C108H173N27O35 Inquiry
P03012 Parathyroid Hormone (13-34), human 2808.3 C125H199N39O33S1 Inquiry
P03013 Parathyroid Hormone (44-68), human 2836.1 C117H199N41O41 Inquiry
P03014 (Tyr43)-pTH (43-68) (human) 2999.29 C126H208N42O43 Inquiry
P03015 Parathyroid Hormone (39-68), human 3285.7 C139H234N46O46 Inquiry
P03017 [Tyr34] Parathyroid Hormone (7-34), amide, bovine 3496.1 C156H244N48O40S2 Inquiry
P03018 pTH (18-48) (human) 3505.07 C156H251N47O43S Inquiry
P03019 Parathyroid Hormone (53-84), human 3510.9 C149H253N43O54 Inquiry
P03020 (Tyr52)-pTH (52-84) (human) 3674.08 C158H262N44O56 Inquiry
P03021 (Tyr52,Asp76)-pTH (52-84) (human) 3675.07 C158H261N43O57 Inquiry

Introduction

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide molecule synthesized and secreted by parathyroid gland main cells, which consists of 84 amino acids. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a 139- to 173-amino-acid protein with N-terminal homology to PTH. PTHrP complex gene is expressed in different tissues. The primary amino acid sequences of both the PTH-like and non-PTH-like regions of the protein are highly conserved among species. Apart from the classical and non-classical PTH activity in the N-terminal region, other biological functions were also found. These include increasing calcium transport in the central region of PTHrP and a C-terminal peptide that effectively inhibits bone resorption. The NH2-terminal region of PTHrP and the corresponding PTH domain are homologous, and the ability of these two molecules to interact with a co-receptor. This seems to explain the ability of PTHrP to mimic many of the effects of PTH on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and bone turnover.

Mechanism of action

PTH mainly acts on the high level of parathyroid hormone I receptor in bone, kidney, central nervous system and pancreas. Blood calcium levels are mainly affected by the PTH II receptor in the testis and placenta. Regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism is accomplished by PTH via cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) and vitamin D, which can maintain the health of mineralized tissue. PTHrP may stimulate multiple signals (cAMP, creatine phosphate and calcium) by activating a common receptor between bone and kidney. In smooth muscle cells, PTH and PTHrP reduce the effects of extracellular calcium through a cAMP-dependent mechanism. PTHrP regulates cardiovascular function mainly by binding to and activating PTH/PTHrP receptors, PTHrP I receptor is most closely related to vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and vascular tone regulation.

Application of Parathyroid Hormones and Related Peptides

PTH is a polypeptide necessary to maintain calcium homeostasis and excess or deficiency can lead to serious disease. PTHrP is a cardiovascular regulatory peptide that plays an important role in cardiovascular system development, blood pressure regulation, and vascular calcification. Both PTH and PTHrP regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism in vascular cells and osteoblasts and are major pathological regulators of calcium homeostasis.

References

  1. Burtis, W. J. (1992). Parathyroid hormone-related protein: structure, function, and measurement. Clinical Chemistry, 38(11), 2171-2183.
  2. Amizuka, N., Warshawsky, H., Henderson, J. E., Goltzman, D., Karaplis, A. C. (1994). Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (pthrp)-depleted mice show abnormal epiphyseal cartilage development and altered endochondral bone formation. Journal of Cell Biology, 126(6), 1611-1623.
  3. Leder, B. Z., O'Dea, L. S. L., Zanchetta, J. R., Kumar, P., Banks, K., McKay, K., ... & Hattersley, G. (2015). Effects of abaloparatide, a human parathyroid hormone-related peptide analog, on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 100(2), 697-706.
* Please kindly note that our products and services can only be used to support research purposes (Not for clinical use).
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