Toxins

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CAT# Product Name M.W Molecular Formula Inquiry
C27001 ω-Conotoxin MVIIA 2639.17 C102H172N36O32S7 Inquiry
C27002 ω-Conotoxin MVIIC 2749.3 C106H178N40O32S7 Inquiry
C27003 Alpha-conotoxin GI 1437.6 C55H80N20O18S4 Inquiry
C27004 Alpha-conotoxin GIA Inquiry
C27006 Scyllatoxin 3423.1 C142H237N45O39S7 Inquiry
C27007 a-Conotoxin IMI 1351.6 C52H78N20O15S4 Inquiry
C27008 w-Agatoxin-TK 5273.1 C215H337N65O70S10 Inquiry
C27009 Iberiotoxin 4230.9 C179H274N50O55S7 Inquiry
C27010 Biotinyl-EpsilonAhx-Omega-Conotoxin GVIA 3376.85 Inquiry
C27012 μ-Conotoxin GIIIA 2609.08 Inquiry
C27013 μ-Conotoxin GIIIB 2640.21 Inquiry

Toxins are poisons produced by organisms. The term was first coined by the organic chemist Ludwig Brieger. These substances are usually proteins that interfere with other macromolecules in organisms, such as ricin. A substance produced by an organism that can cause animal poisoning in a very small amount. Toxins often differ from other chemicals in their methods of production-the term “toxin” does not specify the method of transport (compared to venom and the wider range of poisons-all substances that may also interfere with organisms). This simply means that it is a biological poison. Toxins vary widely in severity, from generally mild acute (such as bee stings) to almost immediately fatal (such as botulinum toxin).

The seven deadliest chemicals (to humans) are:

Five of the seven deadliest compounds known come from nature. Toxins can be divided into exotoxins (toxins excreted by organisms, such as toad toxins) or endotoxins (toxins that are structurally part of bacteria, such as botulinum toxin).

  • Botulinum toxin A (from Clostridium botulinum).
  • Tetanus toxin A (from Clostridium tetanus).
  • Diphtheria toxin (from Corynebacterium diphtheria).
  • Dioxin (manufacture).
  • Muskie (derived from mushrooms and gooses).
  • Toad toxin (derived from toads).
  • Sarin (manufactured)

The function of the toxin

1. Toxins in nature have two main functions:

  • Prey--kills potential foods (such as spiders, wasps, jellyfish and sea anemones).
  • Defense--prevents predators (for example, bees, ants and monarch butterflies, and plants such as broccoli produce a toxin to prevent insects from eating them).

2. Neurotoxins mainly affect the nervous system of animals. Organisms with neurotoxins include:

  • Black Widows and other Widow spiders.
  • Most scorpions.
  • Cubic jellyfish (box jellyfish).
  • Cobra (Elapid snakes).
  • Conus (Cone Snail)

References

  1. Leidreiter, F., Roderer, D., Meusch, D., Gatsogiannis, C., Benz, R., & Raunser, S. (2019). Conserved architecture of Tc toxins from human and insect pathogenic bacteria. bioRxiv, 596536.
  2. Karoor, S. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 10/272,189.
* Please kindly note that our products and services can only be used to support research purposes (Not for clinical use).
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