Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor, HumanPrice Inquiry
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an important mitogen and neurotrophic factor that binds and signals through the high-affinity receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1). However, only a limited amount of information is available concerning the molecular forms and anatomical distribution of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in the normal human brain.
Little is known about the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Some therapeutic approaches had demonstrated that MSCs were able to regenerate injured tissues when applied from different sites of application. This implies that MSCs are not only able to migrate but also that the direction of migration is controlled. Factors that are involved in the control of the migration of MSCs are widely unknown. The migratory ability of isolated MSCs was tested in different conditions. The migratory capability was examined using Boyden chamber assay in the presence or absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), erythropoietin, interleukin-6, stromal cell-derived factor-beta, and vascular endothelial growth factor. bFGF in particular was able to increase the migratory activity of MSCs through activation of the Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway. The results were supported by analyzing the orientation of the cytoskeleton. In the presence of a bFGF gradient, the actin filaments developed a parallelized pattern that was strongly related to the gradient. Surprisingly, the influence of bFGF was not only an attraction but also routing of MSCs. The bFGF gradient experiment showed that low concentrations of bFGF lead to an attraction of the cells, whereas higher concentrations resulted in repulsion. This ambivalent effect of bFGF provides the possibility to a purposeful routing of MSCs.
Schmidt, A., Ladage, D., Schinköthe, T., Klausmann, U., Ulrichs, C., Klinz, F. J., ... & Schwinger, R. H. (2006). Basic fibroblast growth factor controls migration in human mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cells, 24(7), 1750-1758.
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) is a potent angiogenic factor and endothelial cell mitogen. Although bFGF levels are increased in chronically inflamed tissue, its role in inflammation is unclear. We investigated the effect of bFGF on acute dermal inflammation and the recruitment of monocytes, T cells, and neutrophils. Leukocyte recruitment to inflamed sites was quantified with radiolabeled leukocytes. Intradermal injection of bFGF in rats did not induce leukocyte recruitment or inflammation. However, the recruitment of leukocytes to inflammation induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, C5a, or a delayed hypersensitivity reaction was enhanced by bFGF by 55 to 132% (P < 0.05). Either acute or prolonged bFGF treatment of dermal sites had this effect. The potentiating effect of bFGF on leukocyte recruitment was also seen in joints. There was no associated modulation of vascular permeability, blood flow, or angiogenesis in the sites by bFGF. However, the expression of the endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) for leukocytes, P-selectin, E-selectin, and ICAM-1, was significantly up-regulated in the inflamed tissue by bFGF, as quantified by radiolabeled anti-CAM antibody binding in vivo. Thus, although not directly proinflammatory, bFGF synergistically potentiates inflammatory mediator-induced leukocyte recruitment, at least in part, by enhancing CAM up-regulation on endothelium.
Zittermann, S. I., & Issekutz, A. C. (2006). Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) potentiates leukocyte recruitment to inflammation by enhancing endothelial adhesion molecule expression. The American journal of pathology, 168(3), 835-846.