Resveratrol is a phytoalexin derived from grapes and other food products with antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. Resveratrol induces phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (anti-initiation activity); mediates anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits cyclooxygenase and hydroperoxidase functions (anti-promotion activity); and induces promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation (anti-progression activity), thereby exhibiting activities in three major steps of carcinogenesis. This agent may inhibit TNF-induced activation of NF-kappaB in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
An expanding body of preclinical evidence suggests resveratrol has the potential to impact a variety of human diseases. To translate encouraging experimental findings into human benefits, information is first needed on the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and, ultimately, clinical efficacy of resveratrol. Published clinical trials have largely focused on characterizing the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of resveratrol. Recent studies have also evaluated safety and potential mechanisms of activity following multiple dosing, and have found resveratrol to be safe and reasonably well-tolerated at doses of up to 5 g/day. However, the occurrence of mild to moderate side effects is likely to limit the doses employed in future trials to significantly less than this amount. This review describes the available clinical data, outlines how it supports the continuing development of resveratrol, and suggests what additional information is needed to increase the chances of success in future clinical trials.
Patel, K. R., Scott, E., Brown, V. A., Gescher, A. J., Steward, W. P., & Brown, K. (2011). Clinical trials of resveratrol. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1215(1), 161-169.
In the past decade, the small polyphenol resveratrol has received widespread attention as either a potential therapy or as a preventive agent for numerous diseases. Studies using purified enzymes, cultured cells, and laboratory animals have suggested that resveratrol has anti-aging, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant properties that might be relevant to chronic diseases and/or longevity in humans. Although the supporting research in laboratory models is quite substantial, only recently data has emerged to describe the effects of resveratrol supplementation on physiological responses in humans. The limited number of human clinical trials that are available has largely described various aspects of resveratrol's safety and bioavailability, reaching a consensus that it is generally well-tolerated, but have poor bioavailability. Very few published human studies have explored the ability of resveratrol to achieve the physiological benefits that have been observed in laboratory models, although many clinical trials have recently been initiated. This review aims to examine the current state of knowledge on the effects of resveratrol on humans and to utilize this information to develop further guidelines for the implementation of human clinical trials.
Smoliga, J. M., Baur, J. A., & Hausenblas, H. A. (2011). Resveratrol and health–a comprehensive review of human clinical trials. Molecular nutrition & food research, 55(8), 1129-1141.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in the world. Current chemotherapeutic agents are associated with serious side effects in patients therefore researchers are trying to find an alternative agent that is effective against cancer as well as less toxic. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), commonly found in red wine and grape skins, is a phytoalexin agent that was originally extracted from the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum. Resveratrol is believed to work as a chemopreventive agent by producing its effect on cell apoptosis, antiproliferation, and anti-inflammation.
Aluyen, J. K., Ton, Q. N., Tran, T., Yang, A. E., Gottlieb, H. B., & Bellanger, R. A. (2012). Resveratrol: potential as anticancer agent. Journal of dietary supplements, 9(1), 45-56.