Vasoconstrictor in local anaesthetic injections
Pituitary & Hypothalamic Hormones
Argipressin is the predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat diabetes insipidus or to improve vasomotor tone and blood pressure.
The stress-induced release of ACTH is believed to involve the activation of several humoral and neural pathways, including corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), catecholamines and vasopressin. The essential role of CRF was supported by our observation that immunoneutralization of this releasing factor significantly lowers plasma ACTH levels of ether-stressed rats. However, the presence of a small but measurable residual ACTH secretion suggested the possible involvement of factors other than CRF in the stress response. We report here that pretreatment with a vasopressin antagonist decreases the plasma ACTH levels of ether-stressed rats in later (10-20 min), but not earlier (0-10 min), phases of ether stress. The ganglionic blocker chlorisondamine, inhibits ACTH release during both phases of the response to ether by 40-60% when used alone, and by 100% when administered with anti-CRF antibody. These results support a role of CRF, catecholamines and vasopressin in mediating ACTH release by ether stress.
Rivier C, Vale W. Modulation of stress-induced ACTH release by corticotropin-releasing factor, catecholamines and vasopressin[J]. Nature, 1983, 305(5932): 325-327.
The rationale for an arginine vasopressin (argipressin) infusion was put forward after it was discovered that patients in shock states might have an endogenous arginine vasopressin deficiency. Subsequently, several investigations impressively demonstrated that arginine vasopressin can successfully stabilise haemodynamics even in advanced vasodilatory shock. We report on physiological and pharmacological aspects of arginine vasopressin, and summarise current clinical knowledge on employing a continuous arginine vasopressin infusion in critically ill patients with catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock of different aetiologies. In view of presented experimental evidence and current clinical experience, a continuous arginine vasopressin infusion of approximately 2 to approximately 6 IU/h can be considered as a supplemental strategy to vasopressor catecholamines in order to preserve cardiocirculatory homeostasis in patients with advanced vasodilatory shock. Because data on adverse effects are still limited, arginine vasopressin should be reserved for patients in whom adequate haemodynamic stabilisation cannot be achieved with conventional vasopressor therapy or who have obvious adverse effects of catecholamines that result in further significant haemodynamic deterioration. For the same reasons, arginine vasopressin should not be used as a single, alternative vasopressor agent instead of catecholamine vasopressors. Future prospective studies will be necessary to define the exact role of arginine vasopressin in the therapy of vasodilatory shock.
Dünser M W, Wenzel V, Mayr A J, et al. Management of vasodilatory shock[J]. Drugs, 2003, 63(3): 237-256.