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Endothelin-1 (human, bovine, dog, mouse, porcine, rat) Acetate
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a vasoconstrictor secreted by endothelial cells, which acts as the natural counterpart of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). ET-1 contributes to vascular tone and regulates cell proliferation through activation of ETA and ETB receptors. Physical factors such as shear stress, or stimuli including thrombin, epinephrine, angiotensin II, growth factors, cytokines and free radicals enhance secretion of ET-1. By contrast, mediators like nitric oxide (NO), cyclic GMP, atrial natriuretic peptide, and prostacyclin reduce the release of endogenous ET-1. Thus, under normal conditions, the effects of the ET-1 are carefully regulated through inhibition or stimulation of ET-1 release from endothelium.
Over two decades of research have demonstrated that the peptide hormone endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays multiple, complex roles in cardiovascular, neural, pulmonary, reproductive, and renal physiology. Differential and tissue-specific production of ET-1 must be tightly regulated in order to preserve these biologically diverse actions. The primary mechanism thought to control ET-1 bioavailability is the rate of transcription from the ET-1 gene (edn1). Studies conducted on a variety of cell types have identified key transcription factors that govern edn1 expression.
Stow, L. R., Jacobs, M. E., Wingo, C. S., & Cain, B. D. (2011). Endothelin-1 gene regulation. The FASEB Journal, 25(1), 16-28.
Moderate or strong immunostaining was observed for ET-1 in 25.4%, for ET(A)R in 43.7%, and for ET(B)R in 22.2% of breast carcinomas. Of all cases, 44.7% showed significant expression of VEGF. MVD varied between different tumor specimens (range, 0-80; median, 17). We observed a statistically significant correlation between MVD and ET expression status with higher MVD in ET-positive tumors. Moreover, expression of VEGF was found more frequently in tumors with overexpression of the ET axis (each P < 0.001). Staining of VEGF was correlated positively with MVD CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that increased ET-1, ET(A)R, and ET(B)R expression is associated with increased VEGF expression and higher vascularity of breast carcinomas and, thus, could be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in breast cancer. Our findings provide evidence that the expression pattern of the ET-axis and in particular of ET(A)R may have clinical relevance in future antiangiogenic targeted therapies for breast cancer.
Wülfing, P., Kersting, C., Tio, J., Fischer, R. J., Wülfing, C., Poremba, C., ... & Kiesel, L. (2004). Endothelin-1-, endothelin-A-, and endothelin-B-receptor expression is correlated with vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Clinical cancer research, 10(7), 2393-2400.