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Peptide YY (human) Acetate
Peptide YY (PYY) also known as peptide tyrosine tyrosine is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the PYY gene. Peptide YY is a short (36-amino acid) peptide released from cells in the ileum and colon in response to feeding. In the blood, gut, and other elements of periphery, PYY acts to reduce appetite; similarly, when injected directly into the central nervous system, PYY is also anorexigenic, i.e., it reduces appetite. Peptide YY can be produced as the result of enzymatic breakdown of crude fish proteins and ingested as a food product.
The gut-brain axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Four information carriers (vagal and spinal afferent neurons, immune mediators such as cytokines, gut hormones and gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) transmit information from the gut to the brain, while autonomic neurons and neuroendocrine factors carry outputs from the brain to the gut. The members of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of biologically active peptides, NPY, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), are expressed by cell systems at distinct levels of the gut-brain axis. PYY and PP are exclusively expressed by endocrine cells of the digestive system, whereas NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis.
Holzer, P., Reichmann, F., & Farzi, A. (2012). Neuropeptide Y, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide in the gut–brain axis. Neuropeptides, 46(6), 261-274.