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Neuropeptide Y (human, rat) Acetate
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a peptide with 36-amino acids, acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). It is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the central and peripheral nervous system. In the periphery, NPY is widely distributed in the adrenal medulla, in the sympathetic nerves, platelets, and various cell types within white adipose tissue. NPY in the central nervous systems is found in highest concentration within the brain stem, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary. In spite of the major improvements and simplifications in peptide synthesis over the last few years, a considerable amount of skill is still involved in development of neuropeptide Y. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent neurotransmitter in reproductive endocrine functions regulating stress, eating behavior, and metabolism. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the role of NPY and its receptors in various disorders.
Stress is defined as an adverse condition that disturbs the homeostasis of the body and activates adaptation responses. Among the many pathways and mediators involved, neuropeptide Y (NPY) stands out due to its unique stress-relieving, anxiolytic and neuroprotective properties. Stress exposure alters the biosynthesis of NPY in distinct brain regions, the magnitude and direction of this effect varying with the duration and type of stress. NPY is expressed in particular neurons of the brainstem, hypothalamus and limbic system, which explains why NPY has an impact on stress-related changes in emotional-affective behaviour and feeding as well as on stress coping. The biological actions of NPY in mammals are mediated by the Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptor, Y1 receptor stimulation being anxiolytic whereas Y2 receptor activation is anxiogenic. Emerging evidence attributes NPY a role in stress resilience, the ability to cope with stress. Thus there is a negative correlation between stress-induced behavioural disruption and cerebral NPY expression in animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder. Exogenous NPY prevents the negative consequences of stress, and polymorphisms of the NPY gene are predictive of impaired stress processing and increased risk of neuropsychiatric diseases. Stress is also a factor contributing to, and resulting from, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, in which NPY appears to play an important neuroprotective role. This review summarizes the evidence for an implication of NPY in stress-related and neurodegenerative pathologies and addresses the cerebral NPY system as a therapeutic target.
Reichmann, F., & Holzer, P. (2016). Neuropeptide Y: a stressful review. Neuropeptides, 55, 99-109.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the human body and contributes to a vast number of physiological processes. Since its discovery, NPY has been implicated in metabolic regulation and, although interest in its role in central mechanisms related to food intake and obesity has somewhat diminished, the topic remains a strong focus of research concerning NPY signalling. In addition, a number of other uses for modulators of NPY receptors have been implied in a range of diseases, although the development of NPY receptor ligands has been slow, with no clinically approved receptor therapeutics currently available. Nevertheless, several interesting small molecule compounds, notably Y2 receptor antagonists, have been published recently, fueling optimism in the field. Herein we review the role of NPY in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases and highlight instances where NPY receptor signalling systems are attractive therapeutic targets.
Brothers, S. P., & Wahlestedt, C. (2010). Therapeutic potential of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor ligands. EMBO molecular medicine, 2(11), 429-439.