Amino Acids
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Amino Acids

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Amino Acids Chart

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds which perform critical roles in processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis. They contain amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups as well as a side-chain (R group) specific to each amino acid usually. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other elements which are found in the side-chains of certain amino acids. There are only 20 amino acids in the genetic code, and the 20 animo acids can be classified in many ways. They can be classified according to polarity (polar amino acids and no polar amino acids), pH level, and the type of side chain group, such as aliphatic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc. The amino acids reference charts are as follows.

  20 amino acids structures and names.pdf

Hydrophobic Amino Acids

Amino Acids with Hydrophobic Side Chain – Aliphatic
Amino Acids with Hydrophobic Side Chain – Aromatic

Polar Amino Acids

Amino Acids with Polar Neutral Side Chains
Amino Acids with Electricaly Charged Side Chains – Acidic
Amino Acids with Electricaly Charged Side Chains – Basic
Unique Amino Acids
Properties of Common Amino Acids

Amino Acids with Hydrophobic Side Chain - Aliphatic

Alanine

Alanine, Ala, A

Valine

Valine, Val, V

Leucine

Leucine, Leu, L

Isoleucine

Isoleucine, Ile, I

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Amino Acids with Hydrophobic Side Chain – Aromatic

Tryptophan

Tryptophan, Trp, W

Tyrosine

Tyrosine, Tyr, Y

Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine, Phe, F

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Amino Acids with Polar Neutral Side Chains

Asparagine

Asparagine, Asn, N

Cysteine

Cysteine, Cys, C

Glutamine

Glutamine, Gln, Q

Methionine

Methionine, Met, M

Serine

Serine, Ser, S

Threonine

Threonine, Thr, T

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Amino Acids with Electricaly Charged Side Chains – Acidic

Aspartic acid

Aspartic acid, Asp, D

Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid, Glu, E

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Amino Acids with Electricaly Charged Side Chains – Basic

Arginine

Arginine, Arg, R

Histidine

Histidine, His, H

Lysine

Lysine, Lys, K

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Unique Amino Acids

Glycine

Glycine, Gly, G

Proline

Proline, Pro, P

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Properties of Common Amino Acids

3-Letter Symbol1-Letter SymbolNameSide ChainsMolecular FormulaCAS.NoMolecular weightPIPKaPKbR Group
GlyGGlycineHydrophilicC2H5NO256-40-675.076.062.49.8-H
AlaAAlanineHydrophobicC3H7NO256-41-789.096.112.49.9-CH₃
ValVValineHydrophobicC5H11NO272-18-4117.262.49.7-CH-(CH3)2
LeuLLeucineHydrophobicC6H13NO261-90-5131.26.012.39.7-CH2-CH(CH3)2
IleIIsoleucineHydrophobicC6H13NO273-32-5131.26.052.39.8-CH(CI3)-CI2-CI3
PheFPhenylalanineHydrophobicC9H11NO263-91-2165.25.492.29.3-CH2-C6H5
TrpWTryptophaneHydrophobicC11H12N2O273-22-3204.25.892.59.4-C8NH6
TyrYTyrosineHydrophobicC9H11NO360-18-4181.25.642.29.2-CH2-C6H4-OH
AspDAsparagineAcidicC4H7NO46899-03-2133.12.8529.9-CI2-COOH
AsnNAspartic acidHydrophilicC4H8N2O370-47-3132.15.412.18.7-CI2-CONH2
GluEGlutamic acidAcidicC5H9NO456-86-0147.13.152.19.5-(CH2)2-COOH
LysKLysineBasicC6H14N2O256-87-1146.29.62.29.1-(CH2)4-NH2
GlnQGlutamineHydrophilicC5H10N2O356-85-9146.25.652.29.1-(CH2)2-CONH2
MetMMethionineHydrophobicC5H11NO2S63-68-3149.25.742.19.3-(CI2)-S-CI3
SerSSerineHydrophilicC3H7NO356-45-1105.15.682.29.2-CI2-OH
ThrTThreonineHydrophilicC4H9NO372-19-5119.15.62.19.1-CH(CI3)-OH
CysCCysteineHydrophilicC3H7NO2S52-90-4121.25.051.911-CI2-SH
ProPProlineHydrophobicC5H9NO2147-85-3115.16.3211-C3H6
HisHHlstidineBasicC6H9N3O271-00-1155.27.61.89.3
ArgRArgnineBasicC6H14N4O274-79-3174.210.81.89

PI is the pH of the isoelectric point
PKa is the negative of the logarithm of the dissociation constant for the -COOH group
PKb is the negative of the logarithm of the dissociation constant for the –NH3+ group    

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